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Tuesday, May 26, 2009



Saturday, May 23, 2009



Title : Action Research in Teaching and Learning
Author: Lin S. Norton
Year of Publication: 2009
State: New York, US
Published by: Taylor & Francis Books

Concept of the action research

Action research is a term which refers to a practical way of looking at your own work to check that it is as you would like it to be. Because action research is done by you, the practitioner, it is often referred to as practitioner based research; and because it involves you thinking about and reflecting on your work, it can also be called a form of self-reflective practice.

The idea of self reflection is central. In traditional forms of research – empirical research – researchers do research on other people. In action research, researchers do research on themselves. Empirical researchers enquire into other people’s lives. Action researchers enquire into their own. Action research is an enquiry conducted by the self into the self.

You, a practitioner, think about your own life and work, and this involves you asking yourself why you do the things that you do, and why you are the way that you are. When you produce your research report, it shows how you have carried out a systematic investigation into your own behaviour, and the reasons for that behaviour. The report shows the process you have gone through in order to achieve a better understanding of yourself, so that you can continue developing yourself and your work.

The action plan above shows action reflection as a cycle of:
· identify an area of practice to be investigated;
· imagine a solution;
· implement the solution;
· evaluate the solution;
· change practice in light of the evaluation

This action research cycle can now turn into new action research cycles, as new areas of investigation emerge.The processes can be shown as a spiral of cycles, where one issue forms the basis of another and, as one question is addressed, the answer to it generates new questions.

Purposes of pedagogical action research

Action research questions take the form, ‘How do I improve what I am doing?’ This question has an underlying intent to help other people, on the following principles (Jean McNiff,2002):
· Systematically investigate one’s own teaching / learning facilitation practice, with the dual aim of improving that practice and contributing the theoretical knowledge in order to benefit student learning.
· Method of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in schools.
· An aid to reflective thinking which results in action ( Ponte,2002)
· A method of improving the student learning experience and their academic performance.
· A process that enable school academic to articulate their knowledge about learning and teaching.
· Approaches that enable school academics understand better the process learning and teaching.
· A process which can ameliorate the theory – practice gap in school learning and teaching. (Goodnough, 2003)
· A method of inducting new professionals ( Seider and Lemma, 2004)
· To investigate what you are doing with a view to improving it.
· This will help to understand the situation more fully.
· Our developed understanding will help to evaluate your work and change it as necessary.
· The way of working might influence others; how can show this?
· Change the way of working in light of their perceptions. You negotiate this with them.
· Collective agreement about these things helps to understand the situation better.
· Collectively you are now a community of enquirers. You have changed your social situation, and this is bound to have consequences for wider social contexts.
· Your individual ‘I-enquiry’ has turned into a collective ‘we-enquiry’. You have moved from ‘I’ to ‘we’.

Action Research Design

Model: Experimental design
Sample: Third year psychology students (counseling psychology, organizational physiology, and psychology and crime)
Setting: University

Method/ Procedure of Action Research

The classic advice is to think of action research as a spiral where you can plan, act, observe, and reflect (Kember, 2000). This was originally based on Kurt Lewin’s work who, is generally credited as being the founder of action research ( Lewin and Lewin, 1948). Lewin’s approach can be summarized as a series of steps composed of planning, action and then fact finding about the result of he action taken.

Norton, 2009 say that the action research cycle:

1. Observe or notice that something is not as it should be and /or could be improved (observe)
2. Plan a course of action which involves changing something in your practice (plan)
3. Carry out the change (act)
4. See what effect your change has made ( reflect)

A simple process for carrying out action research

Step 1: Identifying a problem/paradox/issues/difficulty
Step2: Thinking of ways to tackle the problem
Step 3: Doing it
Step 4: Evaluating it
Step 5: Modifying future practice

Identifying the issues:

Third year psychology students (counseling psychology, organizational physiology, and psychology and crime) were using to few up- to- date journal articles in their essays.

Thinking of way to tackle it:

One of the most straightforward inquiries could have been to carry out an interview study and survey with psychology students at all levels to find out why they were not using journals? This is a classic research design in positive tradition where the aim is to test a hypothesis by determining an independent variable ( the intervention) and dependent variable ( students that used journals) while controlling for extraneous variables as much as possible ( similar age, motivation, ability, experience, etc). When thinking about designing an intervention, again the range of possibilities is endless and like all research studies, making the decision is probably the hardest part of the whole process. I designed an intervention as part of the counseling psychology module, which would hopefully benefit all the students in the class.

The hypotheses are:
1. Counseling psychology students will use more journals in their assignments than counseling psychology, organizational physiology, and psychology and crime.
2. The 2003 counseling psychology cohorts ( the cohort experiencing the intervention) will use more journals in their assignments that the 2002 counseling cohorts (who had no intervention)

Doing it:

The aims of this intervention was to identify issues that students were not going enough journal articles in their assignments in the module, we found ourselves hypothesizing two possible reasons:

1. The students not up to date how to search the journal articles. Tis came from the actual experience.
2. Cause came from then reflection after a presentation on an earlier cycle from this research at a learning and teaching conference( Norton et al., 2003)

Given that the module was 12 weeks long and class session were only two hours. This is what I did:
1. Spent one hour in class session on reminding my students how to find relevant journals both in the university library and electronically (demonstrated a step- by-step guide)
2. Changed the individual research critique assignment from asking students to evaluate three journal articles (in past years) to asking for a detailed critique on one key up- to-date journal article which are relevant to their case study. I also ask them to present a list of the journal article they had located.

Then when remarked their critiques, I gave the students details written feedback, partly to help them prepared for their presentation. The criteria specified were:

1. Evidence of an up-to-date literature research
2. Accurate referencing using the Harvard system
3. Critical evaluation of one key journal paper
4. Evaluation of the usefulness of the chosen key journal paper

Evaluating it

In order to see if the intervention had worked or not, a positive approach was carried out by analyzing the essays after hey had been marked for the number of the journal cited in the reference list at the end of each assay.

Modifying future practice:

If the results still not satisfactorily, I should modifying my practice for the next year cohorts (2004), example: I decided that I would need to focus more on breaking down the critical evaluation and giving clearly guidance and maybe more practice. In fact modify the practice to the next cohort of counseling psychology student and in so doing issues emerged for another cycle of action research.

Collection and analysis data

1) Data collection technique

Given that the module was 12 weeks long and class sessions were only two hours, he did not have a lot time to play with, a small- scale modification to the delivery of the module. This what he did :
a) He spent one hour in class session on reminding my students how to find relevant journals both in the university library and electronically (demonstrated a step- by-step guide). He gave the instruction about exactly how to write a research critique and give them an example.
b) Changed the individual research critique assignment from asking students to evaluate three journal articles (in past years) to asking for a detailed critique on one key up- to-date journal article which are relevant to their case study. I also ask them to present a list of the journal article they had located.

2)Data analysis technique

In many action research studies, quantitative analysis would be seen as inappropriately positivist. Quantitative analysis is useful in pedagogical research studies. There are two types of quantitative analysis: statistics for description and statistics for drawing conclusion.

Base on the action research design on third year psychology students (counseling psychology, organizational physiology, and psychology and crime) the analysis were carried out through each essay and from the list counted the number of unique citations to give the total number of journal used, as well as books and web sources.

Based on the results comparing the number of journals used in the assignments of the three modules from 2003: there is no difference in the number of journals used between organizational students and crime students who were both using five journals on average. But there was a difference with counseling psychology students who used on average, seven journals and this as a statistically significant difference.

Ethics in action research

In the context of real situation, the more control you put it, the less likely it has to have any applicability to the real life context. Added to this are further difficulties posedby ethical considerations. Since the assessment count, what happened to the disadvantaged groups who have no intervention? So he designed an intervention as part of the counseling psychology module, which would helpfully benefit all the students in the class. Within action research, ethics is concerned with ensuring that the interest and well-being of people are not harmed as a result of the research being done.

Some ethical principles for good research practice

1. Have a valid research design
2. Obtained information consent
3. Avoid dishonesty
4. Minimize interruption
5. Ensure confidentially
6. Minimize risk of harm
7. Demonstrate respect
8. Avoid manipulation
9. reciprocate


Refers to the consistency or stability of a measure or test from one use to another. In other words, the teacher researcher need to be confident that the obtained results not do not excessively fluctuate over different administration of the test, alternative forms, and scorer of the tests or other measures.


Concerned with the inferred meaning from the results obtained through test, questionnaire, observations and the like. Poorly designed research waste participants’ time and often leads to their refusal to participate in any other research study. Martens (1998:24) says that faulty research is not only a waste of time and money but cannot be conceived of as being ethical because it does not contribute to the well -being of participants.

Evaluation from this book

This book is very good for teachers who want to do action research because this book gives you the guidance how to do the action research. This book discuss in details about the method that can used when doing the action research besides the various of example of action research that have been done to give the direction for teachers.

Monday, May 18, 2009

Kajian Kepustakaan...

membanding dan membeza.

: ciri persamaan dan perbezaan berdasarkan kriteria seperti ciri, sifat, kaliti dan unsur sesuatu peristiwa.


: Kemahiran yang kompleks menggunakan beberapa ciri kemahiran berfikir.
mengolah maklumat kepada bahagian2 yang lebih kecil bagi memahami sesuatu konsep dan mencari makna yang tersirat.


:membuat pertimbangan tentang sesuatu perkara daripada segi kebaikan & kelemahan berdasar bukti / dalil yang sah.


:membuat pernyataan tentang hasil kajian berdasarkan hipotesis atau mengukuhkan sesuatu perkara berdasarkan penyiasatan.


:menggabungkan idea2, unsur, item dan perkara yang berasingan untuk hasilkan gambaran yang menyeluruh dalam bentuk pernyataan.

Teori Perubahan

Menurut Oliver (1996) dalam buku The Management of Educational Change: A
Case Study Approach, perubahan didapati lebih menggambarkan ciri-ciri
pendidikan berbanding dengan kestabilan.

Mengikut Dessler (1995)


Perubahan ini memberi kesan kepada komponen-komponen tertentu
dalam organisasi seperti:
- Berlakunya perubahan dalam struktur organisasi.
- Memperkenalkan teknologi baru.
- Mengadakan program pembangunan staf untuk tingkatkan komitmen & produktiviti staf.


Melibatkan keseluruhan organisasi seperti:
- Mendefinisikan semula peranan organisasi.
- Perubahan nilai teras organisasi.
- Pembentukan semula misi.
- Perubahan struktur & strategi organisasi.
- Mendefinisi semula staf dari segi tugas, peranan, tanggungjawab
& sistem ganjaran.


Perubahan ini berlaku akibat tindak balas langsung daripada pelanggan & pihak berkepentingan (stakeholders) .
- Kepekaan pelanggan & stakeholders terhadap isu-isu persekitaran
dan etika memerlukan organisasi melakukan perubahan.
- Perubahan dari segi prosedur & cara layanan pelanggan hendaklah


Perubahan dilakukan bukan disebabkan oleh desakan pelanggan tetapi kerana terdapatnya kesedaran dalam kalangan pengurusan yang perlu diadakan perubahan bagi memastikan organisasi memperoleh kebaikan kompetitif. Antara sebab perubahan ini dilakukan adalah:

Antara sebab perubahan ini dilakukan adalah:
- Persiapan menghadapi pesaing baru yang akan muncul.
- Persiapan terhadap kemungkinan berlakunya perubahan ke atas
kehendak pelanggan.
- Penciptaan baru teknologi yang memerlukan organisasi berubah.
- Persiapan bagi menghadapi perubahan polisi kerajaan.
- Perubahan dalam trend tenaga kerja.



-Apabila masalah atau keperluan tersebut telah dikenal pasti, penyelidik akan menyiasat permasalahan itu dan bagaimana ia akan diselesaikan. Fasa ini melibatkan eksperimen & ciptaan yang banyak. Seterusnnya menghasilkan inovasi.

-Rogers (1995) mengakui bahawa inovasi tidak semestinya terhasil dari penyelidikan. Inovasi mungkin terhasil daripada amalan praktikal di mana pengamal mencari jawapan kepada permasalahan yang timbul.

-Perkara ini dikatakan sebagai knowing-in-action iaitu inovasi yang dihasilkan melalui pengamalan menjadi penting di dalam perubahan pendidikan


- Model ini berasaskan kajian yang dijalankan oleh Rand Corporation pada tahun 1973 – 1978 dengan sokongan Pejabat Pendidikan Amerika Syarikat mengenai perubahan pendidikan (Berman & McLaughlin 1978)

- Tujuan utama kajian adalah untuk menentukan faktor yang menyebabkan atau menghalang perubahan pendidikan.

- Menurut Berman & McLaughlin, proses perubahan di sekolah melibatkan
3 langkah : 1. Daya usaha ( Initiation )
2. Implementasi

3. Penggabungan


- Model ini berdasarkan Projek Apple Classroom of Tomorrow ( ACOT), kajian pengenalan komputer di dalam bilik darjah.

- Model ini mempunyai 5 langkah perubahan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran, iaitu

1.Kemasukan ( Entry )
2. Memilih ( Adoption)
3. Menyesuaikan ( Adaptation )
4. Penggunaan ( Appropriation )
5. Mereka cipta ( Invention )

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Teori Perubahan- Dr.Mohd Izham

8 sebab mengapa orang menentang perubahan:

1) berfikiran kolot
2) takut identiti diri akan hilang
3) takut gagal apabila melakukan perubahan
4) menganggap sesuatu perubahan mendatangkan kesan yang negatif
5) malas untuk melakukan perubahan
6) anggap sesuatu perubahan adalah sesuatu yang kompleks
7) berasa selesa dengan keadaan diri sekarang
8) memerlukan penggunaan masa,tenaga an wang ringgit yang lebih

Cara Penyelesaian

1) Bainwash
2)mengadakan motivasi kepada diri untuk melakukan perubahan
3) sentiasa berfikiran positif apabila melakukan perubahan
4) berani untuk menghadapi kegagalan apabila melakukan perubahan

Thursday, April 30, 2009

Aktiviti 2

Refleksi ke atas masalah/penambahbaikan dalam Pengajaran dan pembelajaran sesuatu tajuk:

tajuk yang saya pilih adalah Mitosis (biology).

Antara masalah - masalah yang timbul adalah:

1. Peruntukan masa yang tidak digunakan sepenunhya.
2. sebutan term yang tidak jelas
3. pronounsation tidak clear menyebabkan ilmu yang hendak disampaikan tidak dapat diterima sepenuhnya oleh pelajar
4. keadaan kelas yang idak kondusif/ tidak selesa
5. pelajar kurang memeberi perhatian yang sepenunuhnya terhadap guru yang mengajar

strategi untuk mengatasi masalh ini adalah dengan:

1. menggunakan masa untuk P&P semaksimum yang mungkin dengan membuat rancangan pengajaran harian (RPH) agar guru tidak akan tertinggal sebarang isi-isi yang penting perkara yang hendak diajar serta guru dapat menggunakan masa dengan bijak serta objektif pengajaran tercapai.

2. guru juga boleh menggunakan alat bantuan mengajar yang pelbagai agar dapat menarik perhatian pelajar terhadap sesuatu topik dan ini tidak akan membosankan para pelajar.

3. guru juga boleh mengaitkan sesuatu topik dengan perkara yang berlaku disekeliling
kehidupan kita.

refleksi BIG- aktiviti I

Penambahbaikan yang perlu saya lakukan.

1. suka membuat kerja last minute/ kerja yang tertangguh-tangguh.

2. mempunyai kurang keyakinan untuk melakukan sesuatu.

3. perlu meningkatkan kemahiran kepimpinan.

matlamat atau objektif pelan tindakan.

1. saya dapat melakukan perancangan yang lebih awal dalam melakukan sesuatu perkara supaya apa yang kita rancang akan menjadi lebih teratur dan sempurna.

2. saya akan mempunyai lebih keyakinan diri dalam melakukan sesuatu tanpa raa malu dan takut ditertawakan oleh orang lain.

3. kepimpinan saya akan lebih terselah dan berupaya memimpin rakan -rakan dalam melakukan sesuatu perkara.

Pelan tindakan.

Langkah -langkah yang perlu diambil

1. menambah bahan bacaan tentang bagaimana untuk menjadi pemimpin dan apakah ciri - ciri eorang pemimpin yang berjaya.

2. apabila mendapat sesuatu tugasan , terus membuatnya tanpa menangguh lagi kerja tesebut.

3. menanam motivasi yang tinngi untuk menjadi lebih berkeyakinan.

4. meminta bantuan rakan agar mengingatkan saya apabila saya terleka.

5. perlu mengahadiri ceramah - ceramah,seminar dan public speaking bagaimana untuk meningkatkan keyakinan diri dan bagaimana untuk menjadi pemimpin yang bekesan.

Bagaimana mengumpul data

1. saya akan menyenaraikan setiap tugasan yang saya apat dengan dateline agar saya tidak lagi akan tertangguh - tangguh melakukan kerja. saya juga akan membuat questionare kapada rakan - rakan saya adakan saya masih lagi berada di takuk lama.

Bagaimana saya memantau

1. aya akan memantau samaada saya dapat menyiapkan sesuatu tugasan pada masa yang telah ditetapka atau tidak. Selain itu saya juga akan bertanya pendapat rakan - rakan adakah saya dapat meningkatkan rasa kurang keyakinan diri atau tidak.

Bagaimana menilai.

1. saya akan menilai setiap perancangan dan kaedah - kaedah yang saya gunakan samaada berkesan atau tidak. Jika saya masih tidak dapat menggurangkan rasa keyakinan, membuat kerja last minute dan masih lagi kurang daya kepimpinan,maka saya perlu mengubah kaedah - kaedah tersebut dengan menukar kepada strategi yang baru.